Together with recent research by Crick (Crick, in press; Crick & Grotpeter, 1995), our findings suggest that relational aggression is a meaningful construct, and distinct from physical aggression. Such findings not only contribute to the understanding of gender differences in the development of aggression and peer relations, but also have implications for the measurement of aggression as well as the treatment of aggressive and rejected children. These findings indicate that relational aggression, especially among girls, is a construct that should be considered for inclusion in the development and use of measures intended to link peer rejection and social behavior. However, in looking at developmental differences in these findings, it should be noted that at sixth grade, both types of aggression (physical and relational) were less strongly connected to peer rejection in girls than in boys of the same age. Clearly, there are factors other than behavior that older girls consider when deciding with whom to associate. This is consistent with the developmental theory of aggressive strategies proposed by Bjorkqvist, Osterman et al. (1992) and may reflect older girls' increased maturity, social intelligence, and affiliation patterns.
Citation: Relational aggression and peer relations: Gender and developmental issues Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Jan 1997 by Gail S Rys, George G Bear
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Bullying | Safe Schools | Self Mutilitation
| Human Trafficking | Did you know?
is Relational Aggression?
Develop a district-wide safe schools plan, as well as individual plans for each school in the system. Include systematic procedures for dealing with specific types of crises and ensuring the safety of students and school personnel.
Solicit free or discounted copies of daily newspapers. Encourage teachers to incorporate news coverage into English, civics and social studies courses. While considering these ideas, it is important to remember two things. First, what works is good public relations. Second, what does not work is not necessarily bad public relations. Undoubtedly, there are dozens of other strategies and positive options that will emerge out of safe school planning. It is our hope that these suggested strategies will spark additional ideas that promote the safety and success of all children. Excerpted in part from Educated Public Relations: School Safety 101, published by the National School Safety Center.
Internet citation: National School Safety Center
It is estimated that one in every 100 individuals in the United States, or more than 2.5 million people, are self-mutilators. Girls are four times more likely to engage in self-harm than boys, with girls between the ages of 16 and 25 at highest risk, although many girls begin cutting in middle school (ages 12 or 13). At risk individuals also include those who have underlying psychiatric disorders. Up to half of individuals who are self-mutilators were sexually abused as children.
Internet citation: Cutter Demographics
Stereotypical self-mutilation has been seen in the Lesch-Nyhan, deLange, and Tourette's syndrome which has spurred interest in a biological model.
Biological Model 1:
Recent evidence suggests the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in self-mutilation.
Biological Model 2:
In addition to dopamine, endogenous opioids have also been linked to self-mutilation. The biological reinforcement theory suggests that the pain from self-mutilation may cause the production of endorphins (endogenous opioids) that reduce dysphoria. A cycle is formed in which the habitual self-mutilator will hurt themselves in order to feel better.
Biological Model 3:
A third biological explanation suggests that individuals may mutilate themselves in order to supply sensory stimulation.
Internet citation: Types of Motivation
The content of this article may be very triggering if you engage in self mutilation; please consider this carefully before reading on.
Self mutilation is very difficult to understand from the prospective of people who have never experienced the behavior themselves. For family members or friends of someone who self mutilates, it is terrifying, confusing, and frustrating.
Internet citation: What is Self Mutilation and Why Does It Happen?
In contrast to aggravated assault arrest rates, murder rates increased only among juveniles and adults younger than age 25 between 1980 and 1994. During this period, arrest rates for youth ages 15-17 increased an average of 135% and 49% for adults ages 18-24. Murder rates declined 17% for adults ages 25-29, 35% for those ages 30-34, and 41% for those ages 35-39.
Tools for Service Providers and Law Enforcement
For resources and assessment tools built for professionals who encounter potential victims of trafficking, click the buttons on
below to view or download a collection of documents. The National Human Trafficking Resource Center also offers phone, web, and in-person trainings on a variety of topics. Click here to request a training or access online training, or call the hotline at 1-888-3737-888.
Internet citation: How to Talk to Your Young Children
On November 16, 1907, Oklahoma became the 46th state in the Union.