Children in lower grades are more likely to be victims of same age bullies. Younger students experience more direct bullying, whereas older students experience more indirect bullying. Victimization decreases across grade levels: 26% of grades 1 3 children report victimization compared to 15% of grades 4 6 and 12% of grades 7 8 children.
Internet citation: Bullying.org
For additonal information or for help in this area contact Youth & Family 405.275.3340
Bullying | Safe Schools | Self Mutilitation
| Human Trafficking | Did you know?
is Relational Aggression?
Incorporate safety topics into the curriculum. For instance, social studies or civics classes can discuss Gallup's annual poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools; physical education courses can include instruction on physical safety; chemistry classes can examine the negative effects of drugs on the human body; English classes can correlate literature study with essays on self-esteem, character-building or student misbehavior; and graphics classes can promote safer campuses by designing posters featuring effective safety messages.
Unanimous political support for quality education presents schools with a variety of opportunities. Many federal, state and local agencies and officials provide resources and services that can be helpful to schools. Identify the key government officials and political representatives in your area and add their names to your mailing list. At the same time, start a file on materials, resources and services they have to offer. Learn their primary interests in schools and explore means to effectively integrate those interests with your needs. If top policymakers are not easily accessible, request that they assign a regular contact person to work with you.
Internet citation: National School Safety Center
It is estimated that one in every 100 individuals in the United States, or more than 2.5 million people, are self-mutilators. Girls are four times more likely to engage in self-harm than boys, with girls between the ages of 16 and 25 at highest risk, although many girls begin cutting in middle school (ages 12 or 13). At risk individuals also include those who have underlying psychiatric disorders. Up to half of individuals who are self-mutilators were sexually abused as children.
Internet citation: Cutter Demographics
Stereotypical self-mutilation has been seen in the Lesch-Nyhan, deLange, and Tourette's syndrome which has spurred interest in a biological model.
Biological Model 1:
Recent evidence suggests the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in self-mutilation.
Biological Model 2:
In addition to dopamine, endogenous opioids have also been linked to self-mutilation. The biological reinforcement theory suggests that the pain from self-mutilation may cause the production of endorphins (endogenous opioids) that reduce dysphoria. A cycle is formed in which the habitual self-mutilator will hurt themselves in order to feel better.
Biological Model 3:
A third biological explanation suggests that individuals may mutilate themselves in order to supply sensory stimulation.
Internet citation: Types of Motivation
The content of this article may be very triggering if you engage in self mutilation; please consider this carefully before reading on.
Self mutilation is very difficult to understand from the prospective of people who have never experienced the behavior themselves. For family members or friends of someone who self mutilates, it is terrifying, confusing, and frustrating.
Internet citation: What is Self Mutilation and Why Does It Happen?
Between 1994 and 2001, murder arrest rates declined for all age groups, but the declines were greater for juveniles than for adults. More specifically, the rates dropped 70% for youth ages 15-17, compared with 42% for adults ages 18-24, 34% for those ages 25-29, and 36% for those ages 30-39.
Internet citation: OJJDP
How Can I Recognize Human Trafficking Victims?
Because trafficking in persons is usually an "underground" crime, it can be difficult for law-enforcement personnel, the public, or service providers to readily identify a trafficking victim or a trafficking scenario.
There have been cases of victims escaping and reporting the situation to the police. However, many are physically unable to leave their work sites without an escort and are not free to contact family, friends, or members of the public.
There are many factors that can tip off the general public, law enforcement personnel, or service organizations that a trafficking scenario may be taking place locally.
How Can I Recognize Trafficking Victims?
Victims of sex trafficking are often found in the streets or working in establishments that offer commercial sex acts, e.g., brothels, strip clubs, pornography production houses. Such establishments may operate under the guise of:
Very young prostitutes
People forced into indentured servitude can be found in:
Sweatshops (where abusive labor standards are present);
Commercial agricultural situations (fields, processing plants, canneries)
Domestic situations (maids, nannies)
Construction sites (particularly if public access is denied); and
Restaurant and custodial work
Internet citation: How Can I Recognize Human Trafficking Victims?
The tallest building in Oklahoma is CityPlex Towers, Tulsa. The second tallest building is the Williams Center, also, in Tulsa.