Up to April 1, 1971 there was no facility to accommodate children in Pottawatomie, Lincoln, Seminole and
Okfuskee Counties who were in distress either by reason of misfortune or their own acting out. Many were housed in a cell exactly like
the one to the right. It was made for adult offenders. It was barred, locked and stark read more...
Boys report more physical forms of bullying; girls tend to bully in indirect ways, such as gossiping and excluding.
Internet citation: Bullying.org
For additonal information or for help in this area contact Youth & Family 405.275.3340
Bullying | Safe Schools | Self Mutilitation
| Human Trafficking | Did you know?
is Relational Aggression?
Consider establishing a student tip line which provides an anonymous, non-threatening way for young people to report school crime.
Internet citation: National School Safety Center
It is estimated that one in every 100 individuals in the United States, or more than 2.5 million people, are self-mutilators. Girls are four times more likely to engage in self-harm than boys, with girls between the ages of 16 and 25 at highest risk, although many girls begin cutting in middle school (ages 12 or 13). At risk individuals also include those who have underlying psychiatric disorders. Up to half of individuals who are self-mutilators were sexually abused as children.
Internet citation: Cutter Demographics
Stereotypical self-mutilation has been seen in the Lesch-Nyhan, deLange, and Tourette's syndrome which has spurred interest in a biological model.
Biological Model 1:
Recent evidence suggests the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in self-mutilation.
Biological Model 2:
In addition to dopamine, endogenous opioids have also been linked to self-mutilation. The biological reinforcement theory suggests that the pain from self-mutilation may cause the production of endorphins (endogenous opioids) that reduce dysphoria. A cycle is formed in which the habitual self-mutilator will hurt themselves in order to feel better.
Biological Model 3:
A third biological explanation suggests that individuals may mutilate themselves in order to supply sensory stimulation.
Internet citation: Types of Motivation
The content of this article may be very triggering if you engage in self mutilation; please consider this carefully before reading on.
Self mutilation is very difficult to understand from the prospective of people who have never experienced the behavior themselves. For family members or friends of someone who self mutilates, it is terrifying, confusing, and frustrating.
Internet citation: What is Self Mutilation and Why Does It Happen?
In 2000, 86% of young adults had completed high school, a slight increase since 1972 when it was 83%.
Internet citation: OJJDP
Overview of Human Trafficking Issue
Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery. Victims of human trafficking are young children, teenagers, men and women. Victims of human trafficking are subjected to force, fraud, or coercion, for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced labor.
After drug dealing, trafficking of humans is tied with arms dealing as the second largest criminal industry in the world, and is the fastest growing.
Many victims of human trafficking are forced to work in prostitution or the sex entertainment industry. But trafficking also occurs in forms of labor exploitation, such as domestic servitude, restaurant work, janitorial work, sweatshop factory work and migrant agricultural work.
Traffickers use various techniques to instill fear in victims and to keep them enslaved. Some traffickers keep their victims under lock and key. However, the more frequent practice is to use less obvious techniques including:
Debt bondage - financial obligations, honor-bound to satisfy debt
Isolation from the public - limiting contact with outsiders and making sure that any contact is monitored or superficial in nature
Isolation from family members and members of their ethnic and religious community
Confiscation of passports, visas and/or identification documents
Use or threat of violence toward victims and/or families of victims
The threat of shaming victims by exposing circumstances to family
Telling victims they will be imprisoned or deported for immigration violations if they contact authorities
Control of the victims' money, e.g., holding their money for safe-keeping
In October 2000, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) made human trafficking a Federal crime. It was enacted to prevent human trafficking overseas, to protect victims and help them rebuild their lives in the U.S., and to prosecute traffickers of humans under Federal penalties. Prior to 2000, no comprehensive Federal law existed to protect victims of trafficking or to prosecute their traffickers.
Internet citation: ACF Fact Sheet
Oklahoma is in the middle of Tornado Alley. Oklahomans know that the National Weather Service issues tornado watches when conditions are favorable for a tornado to develop and tornado warnings when a tornado is spotted on the ground on in the sky.